Research Sandbox

From WaiWiki

Brine shrimp

Brine shrimp Artemia spp.

Brine shrimp are small crustaceans.

Freshly prepared brine shrimp cysts (eggs) may be used to feed fish.

Brine shrimp cysts and Zebrafish (Danio rerio):

Brine shrimp cysts fed to adult zebrafish Danio rerio encourages mating. When brine shrimp were administered a few days before breeding, the belly enlarges noticeably in adult female zebrafish. Belly enlargement means that the male and female zebrafish are ready to be placed together in a small tank for mating. Brine shrimp cysts can be fed occasionally to flake-fed fish as a live-feed for a broader nutrient range, so it is not only for breeding purposes.

Zebrafish when consuming brine shrimp cysts will bite into it, releasing the reddish pink orangy gold contents, along with the salt. They do not eat the shell, so a few hours later you may have to check the tank and scoop out the waste. It is a much enjoyed treat by zebrafish. While feeding brine shrimp to fish, it might be nice to check the water quality and water salinity more frequently to maintain a nice tank for the fish. Note: Brine shrimp cysts should be given to fish size that can tolerate the size, tiny larval zebrafish were not given brine shrimp.

Quantity: Approximately <5 liters of brine shrimp cysts were prepared at a time for zebrafish.

Brine shrimp cysts for Tilapia (Oreochromis)?:

Brine shrimp may be fed to tilapia larvae. Brine shrimp that consumed yeast, yeast expressing a tilapia vitellogenin protein (rVtg), contained vitellogenin; and larval tilapia (Oreochromis Mossambicus) fed with these vitellogenin enriched brine shrimp grew better than without the vitellogenin enrichment; Brine shrimp without vitellogenin protein were also an acceptable feed for tilapia larvae This means that vitellogenin protein might be important to tilapia larval fish development.

Adult Brine Shrimp for Tilapia (Oreochromis)?:

Adult Brine Shrimp fed with some dinoflagellates can sometimes contain dinoflagellate toxins such as Gambierdiscus toxicus; and Tilapia fed with these toxin filled brine shrimp displayed behavioural abnormalities.

Adult Brine Shrimp might be a source of fats for fish. But the ratio and quality of fats might depend on what the brine shrimp was fed during the 24 hours post hatching of the shrimp. Emulsions of Vitamin C, Vitamin E were variables manipulated in their studies to enhance nutrient content of brine shrimp.

Are Brine Shrimp Cysts better than Adult Brine Shrimp for Tilapia feed? Fish size and feed type. Tilapia Larvae: Food, growth and dpf (days post fertilization) for Tilapia larvae? Adult Tilapia:

Problems of Quantity: How much food does a tilapia larvae need? How much food of each type (algae, plankton, insects, shrimps,...etc.) does a tilapia larvae need? How much food does it take to run a tilapia larvae nursery? How much food does it take to run an adult tilapia farm?


What is Vitellogenin?

Vitellogenin is found in:

Insects insect's yolk

Chicken liver (of egg-laying hens)

Rainbow Trout (female)

Blackchin Tilapia

Insects might be a source of vitellogenin protein. Does it matter if it is "tilapia" vitellogenin protein or not?

- Vitellogenin (Vg)

- Vitellogenin mitochondria RNA (VgR mRNA)

- Vitellogenin receptor (VgR)

- low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)

Vitellogenin & Chickens.

Avian vitellogenin gene is expressed only in the liver of egg-laying hens.

Immature chicks or roosters can activate the avian vitellogenin gene by oestradiol.

Hormones activates the oestrogen response element (ERE) and not organ specific.

Demethylation of specific mCpGs in the promoter region occurs parallel to onset of transcription; the promoter region is hormone and expression specific.

Another protein (protein in full text) binds with high affinity to the ERE.

Vitellogenin & Pesticides.

Pesticides (organochlorine) might increase vitellogenin content in Sarotherodon melanotheron (blackchin tilapia).

Vitellogenin & Genistein.

Genistein increased vitellogenin content in female rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, however, it might interfere with the endogenous ratio of estrogen/genistein, lowering the number of fish fertilized/hatched.

What is Genistein?

Genistein is a phytoestrogen, and occurs especially in soyabeans. {So feeding fish soya might not be a good idea?}

Fungal Symbionts

Fungal symbionts on the root systems of plants can help plants grow better. Helps maintain water content at the roots. But some fungal symbionts, might contain alkaloids, and some livestocks do not tolerate alkaloids.

Nitrogen-fixation occurs in anaerobic(low oxygen) conditions:

Anabaena's(cyanobacteria) heterocysts fixes nitrogen: Anabaena growth and heterocysts:

Heterocyst and Non-heterocysts, Nitrogen and Coral Reefs:

Other Silicon Sources?

Volcano ash, Obsidian glass, perlite water soluble, not heated diatomaceous earth (can it be recycled for soil use?), pumice stone. Ecology of diatoms and volcano islands?


[quote="""Broodstock"]"About 9 locations are available for marking. By selecting 3 of these locations on each fish, a total of 84 combinations is possible. (the first fish is marked 1,2,3, the second is marked 1,2,4 etc., and the last one is marked 6,7,8. "[/quote]

Good Strategy using "combinations" from math; and eliminates need for multiple dyes. but I am concerned about the locations of where you are marking the fish.

Why are you marking fish? What is the purpose to identify each fish? Is it on the tail or near the tail region? Pectoral fin? Will the markings negatively affect fish growth and development? Are the dyes non-toxic?