Comparable to oranges and clementines, mangoes are among the most all-round fruits, regarding nutrients. Mangoes are cultivated in (sub)tropical regions all over the world.
- 1 Low-fibre, sweet mango species
- 2 Mango Cultivation
- 3 Bugs
- 4 Integrated Pest Management
- 5 Diseases
Low-fibre, sweet mango species
If you use a juice extractor like the Hurom / Versapers (masticating slow juicer), the stringy fibres from species like Tommy Atkins or Haden will clog your juicer (more so than pineapples). The chamber will fill up with long fibres that simply never get discarded, so that you need to empty and clean it after every few mangoes. With mangoes like Kent (#11 on the list), you may endlessly (>100 mangoes) continue juicing without having to empty or clean the chamber in between, because the short fibres are immediately discarded as pulp (as with apples, pears, clementines).
- #1 (aka Anwer Rathol, Anwar Retaul or Anwar Rataul)
- Small size (av. 180 g), medium thick skin
- Matures from green to pale bright yellow
- Very sweet (TSS 26-28%)
- Fibreless flesh, medium juicy
- Originally from Rataul, in Bagpat district, in the province of Uttar Pradesh, India.
- Harvested from June to July (India and Punjab in Pakistan)
- Keeps well in storage
- #2 (aka Alphanso, Bombay)
- Small, roundish / oblong (av. 200 g.)
- Smooth, (from green to) pale greenish-yellow to deep orange peel (deepening with ripening)
- Smooth, firm flesh. Intense reddish-orange colour
- Sweet, somewhat sour (17% sugar; sugar/acid ratio: 39; TSS 21-23%) and flavoured
- Virtually without fibre (1%), medium juicy
- Originally from Western India
- Main production in Maharashtra and Gujarat
- Highest quality in Sindhudurg, Ratnagiri (Natwarlal plantation), Raigad and Thane districts
- Harvested from early April to early July (India) and July (some districts in Sindh, Pakistan)
- Fairly disease resistant
- Tolerates high humidity
- Good keeping quality (up to 4 weeks at 11° C)
- #3 (aka Dasheri, Doshehri, Aman Dusehri or Dussehri)
- Small, oblong (av. 175 g)
- Matures from light green to light yellow, thin skin
- Sweet (TSS 21-22%), lemon yellow flesh
- Fibreless, medium juicy
- Very small stone
- Heavy bearer
- Originally from Dasheri, Uttar Pradesh, India.
- Harvested from early June to July, mainly Malihabad, Uttar Pradesh (and Punjab)
- #4 (aka Begun Palli, Began Phali, Banganapalli or Baganpali)
- Large (av. 550 g.), oval
- Sweet (TSS 18-20%)
- Fibreless, little juicy, yellow flesh
- Matures from dark green to yellow light green or yellow-orange
- Thin, smooth, shiny skin
- Originally from Sindh, Pakistan and/or Banganapalle in Andhra Pradesh, India.
- Harvested from July to August (Pakistan)
- #5 (aka Sindhry)
- Medium to large (av. 300 g., av. 400 g in Pakistan)
- Elongated with pointy curve
- Sweet (17% sugar; sugar/acid ratio: 36; TSS 15-17%), flavoured
- Little fibre (3% - 5%), little juicy
- From green to deep matt lemon yellow thin peel (somewhat wrinkly) when ripe
- Deep yellow-orange flesh; soft and melting
- Originally from Mir Pur Khaas in Sindh
- Harvested from late May to July (Pakistan)
- #6 (aka Sammar Bahisht Chausa)
- Large (av. 350 g.), oblong
- Sweet (18% sugar; sugar/acid ratio: 58; TSS 18-20%)
- Soft, succulent flesh
- Medium fibre, large stone, medium juicy (delicious for eating, too stringy for the slow juicer)
- Thin, pale, matt yellow-greenish peel (wrinkly and slightly deeper when ripe)
- Heavy bearer
- Originally from Pakistan
- Harvested mainly in the Rahim Yar Khan and Multan (Sahiwal) districts of Punjab in Pakistan
- Harvested from June to early September (Pakistan)
- Medium, round (av. 300 g.)
- Sweet (17% sugar; sugar/acid ratio: 42; TSS 16-17%) and flavoured
- Red blush peel (with yellow tinge when ripe)
- Smooth, deep/pale yellow flesh (soft when ripe)
- Medium fibre, very juicy
- Harvested from mid-June to early July (Gambia)
- #8 (aka Gopal Bhogue)
- Small size (average 190 g.)
- Yellow-green peel, with small seeds
- Virtually without fibre
- Very sweet (21% sugar)
- Good quality mainly grown in Rajshahi region, especially in Chapainawabganj district (Bangladesh).
- Harvest from mid May to mid June (Bangladesh)
- Large sized, ovoid (av. 350 g.)
- Thin, orange peel
- Yellow to orange flesh
- Little fibre
- Sweet (19% sugar)
- Originally (as a carabao variety) from Sta. Cruz, Zambales (Philippines)
- Harvest from March to April (Locloc, Palauig in northern Zambales, Philippines)
- #10 (aka Adaulfo, Adolfo, Champagne, Manila or honey mango, related to Alphonso)
- Small, oblong shape (av. 225 g.)
- With ripening, peel turns from pale green to gold-yellow (yellow to orange and wrinkles when fully ripe)
- Deep yellow flesh (gold when ripe), little fibre and thin pit
- Smooth, sweet (15% sugar), and buttery / creamy flesh
- Spicy flavour
- Best temperature is 28°C, tolerates 1100 to 3000 mm annual rainfall
- Originally from Chiapas, Mexico
- Harvest from mid-October to late December (Ecuador); February to August (Ghana)
- May be stored in the fridge for 2 weeks
- Large, rounded oval (500 to 800 g.)
- Smooth, waxy thick peel (green with some yellow and red; yellow increases with ripening)
- Soft, melting, juicy flesh (from deep yellow to deep orange when fully ripe)
- Limited fibre (dry weight: 0.4 - 2%), small seed
- Sweet (13% sugar; 14ºBrix )
- Originally from Mexico / Florida
- Harvest from January to March and May to August (Ghana)
- Large tree (up to 20 m.)
- No storage keeping below 13°C
- Fairly disease resistant
The best soil for mango trees has a pH between 5.5 and 7.5 (high pH may cause leaf tip burn). The temperature range for growing mangoes is 15 to 40°C. Mango does best within a temperature range of 24 to 27°C. The Indian race is in general intolerant of humidity (susceptible to anthracnose), the Philippine race tolerates excess moisture. The life span of each tree is approximately 100 years. Economic bearing life is 30 to 50 years. Mango trees need deep soil (up to 2 m) for their root systems. Grafted saplings yield a more superior quality of fruit. Fruits are borne by mango trees from 4 to 5 years after planting. Full bearing starts at 6 to 7 years. Grafted mango plants start bearing blossoms one to two years after planting, provided that there is no high humidity or intense rain during the flowering period. Mango is successfully cultivated in areas with annual precipitation of 300-2500 mm. For successful cultivation, rainfall distribution is essential, as a dry spell of 3 to 4 months is required for flowering, fruit set and fruit development. Without flowering there will be no fruit set. Soils with high clay content or frequent water logging are not suitable. Ideal soil for mango is deep red loam with loose gravel. A dry spell of 4 months between flowering and fruit harvest is ideal.
Trees grown from mango seeds (and naturally, sexually propagated) will be very different from the tree those mangoes came from (such 'wild mangoes' usually taste bad). That is why rootstocks (raised from seeds) are asexually propagated. Matured seedlings (about 60 cm tall) are grafted by inarching; a bud from a tree producing good quality mangoes is artificially attached to the rootstock. This will create a new tree with two parts: the lower (wild) part and the upper part, which is an exact copy of the tree you took this bud from. Any bud growing from the lower part needs to be pruned off immediately. The upper part needs to grow and produce branches, and eventually fruits. During the first month after planting, the young trees need to be irrigated every 3 days. During the next 2 months, they need to be irrigated once a week. After that they should not be watered for a couple of months. Each year they need a dry season of a few months. Young plants need 10 to 30 kg organic manure per plant. Don't use a chemical fertilizer on young plants. Once the tree is 2 years old, you may start using a controlled release fertilizer (with higher nitrogen), like 12-5-9 or 12-8-34 (= ratios N:P:K); 1 tbsp. in 1 L warm water / meter tree height. Or just manure.
Rootstock branches should always be pruned off. To prevent viral infections, only prune using a very sharp, sterilized knife (sterilize on the spot with a propane torch).
Space mango trees about 12 meters apart. Adult mango trees need about 500-750 mm of water per year. Irrigation at one week intervals results in the greatest yield, compared to 2 week intervals or no irrigation at all. Mango trees need dry and wet spells alternately (also kills various pathogens). Don't fertilize mature trees during fruit bearing, and not too much irrigation. If during the blooming season the soil contains much nutrients (fertilizer) and water, the tree will grow, but not flower and bear fruits. You may either:
- A: Apply 80 to 100 kg manure per year (eg humanure from composting toilets), after all fruits are picked. Or:
- B: Apply 3-4 kg SSP, 2-3 kg Potassium Sulphate and 2-3 kg Urea before flowering. Plus 2-3 kg Urea in 2 doses after fruit setting. Or:
- C: Use a controlled release fertilizer once a year, such as 4-4-8 (= ratios N:P:K), after all fruits are picked (1 tbsp. in 1 L warm water / meter tree height).
Fruit size is most strongly affected by the initial fruit dry mass after cell division. Early water stress influences final fruit size through an effect on the cell number. The critical period for fruit development is during the first 6 to 8 weeks when cell division and cell wall synthesis occur. Maintaining soil moisture at >60% of capacity improves fruit quality and yield. As fruit approaches maturity, water needs to be withheld, to increase sugar content. A water shortage close to harvest (eg 1.5 weeks before harvest) has no effect on fruit size. Increased levels of (water-soluble) fructose induced by late water-stress may be due to its contribution to osmotic adjustment.
One should aim at horizontal canopies instead of vertical canopies. Fruit growth is mainly affected by the availability of carbohydrates. Fruit size and dry matter contents are lower in fruits positioned lower in the canopy. Leaf nitrogen on an area basis reflects photosynthetic capacity, which is linearly related to the fraction of intercepted light. Shaded leaves have the lowest assimilation of carbon. Lower carbon assimilation results in lower dry mass (incl.sugars) contents.
An increase in leaf-to-fruit ratio has a positive effect on sweetness  and a negative one on sourness . Light exposure and leaf to fruit ratio determine the assimilation of sugars into the fruit. Excess nitrogen increases this ratio too much, increasing susceptibility to disease. Fruit growth rate, sucrose concentration, structural dry matter and total dry matter (structural-to-total dry matter ratio is not affected) is greater when increasing the leaf:fruit ratio (ranging from 10 to 150 leaves per fruit). Water and dry matter accumulation are strongly positively correlated, and most marked at ratios > 100. Low assimilated supply increases the ratios of calcium (ratio < 60), glucose, fructose, malic and citric acid to structural dry weight, but not glucose concentration. Irrigation strongly affects fructose concentration and starch breakdown. Starch breakdown mainly leads to an increase in sucrose concentration rather than an increase in glucose concentration.
Peel-light exposure also converts green to red colouring of the peel by stimulating anthocyanin production.
After fruit harvest, prune off diseased, dried, broken branches and those touching the ground. Every 3 to 4 years about 15 to 20% of old wood should be removed. Picking should be done when the fruit is fully developed and mature. Natural drop of the fruit is the main indication that the fruit is ready for picking. Expected yields vary from 40 to 100 kg per tree.
One cannot rear any animals (except for carnivores) on land with mango trees, as mango leaves are deadly poisonous.
Aphids (plant lice; Toxoptera odinae) are small (1-4 mm), living in clusters. They pierce plant tissue and suck the sap of the leaves, which may cause the leaves to bend, twist or roll up. Aphids also transmit plant viruses. Some species produce winged offspring, "alates", that may readily disperse. Dry (and warm) weather stimulates increases in aphid numbers. Some species of ants (eg Dolichoderus cuspidatus and Formica aerate) protect and 'farm' aphids, feeding on the honeydew released by the aphids' alimentary (gut) canals. Insects secreting honeydew may cause Sooty mould
Control: Plant flowering plants at the boarders to attract beneficial insects. Plant 'trap crops' (dill, nasturtiums, timothy grass) to monitor aphid numbers. Check the trap crops every 3 days. Infested trap crops need to be burned. Aphid's natural enemies include predatory ladybirds (eg Propylea quatuordecimpunctata), hooverfly larvae, parasitic wasps, aphid midge larvae, crab spiders (Thomisidae) and lacewings (Neuroptera). Exposing aphid populations to natural predators may be successful particularly when its hot, because once bitten they release an alarm pheromone and the others all jump off the plant. Jumping aphids may experience a heat shock (> 35°C) since the ground may be much warmer than the shady tree. This heat shock usually sterilizes the aphids (killing the bacteria on aphids that provide nutrients essential for aphid reproduction). 
Crab spiders (Thomisidae); Crab spiders are ambush hunters (they don't build webs) that not just eat aphids, but may also hunt ants that farm aphids. Some of these crab spiders, Xysticus sp, may however not just eat ants, but also predatory beetles (that eat aphids).
Green lacewings (Chrysopidae); One may buy millions of lacewings (as captive-bred eggs) for biological pest control, as reared for that purpose in many countries. A female lacewing may plant over 100 eggs on plants infested with aphids. These eggs hang on a thin 1 cm long stalk, most often under a leaf. The larvae of most species of lacewings are specialised predators that eat aphids (and coccids such as mango scales, and caterpillars). These larvae sway their heads from left to right, and back, until they strike something they can eat. They have mouthparts that can pierce and suck the aphids. Many (adult) lacewing species also feed on nectar and pollen, but particularly Chrysopidae (eg Mallada signata, Mallada boninensis) are mainly predatory (one adult may eat 15 aphids per day). One may attract Chrysopidae by planting crops that attract them (mainly Asteraceae and Apiaceae), such as calliopsis (Coreopsis), cosmos (Cosmos), sunflowers (Helianthus), dandelion (Taraxacum), dill (Anethum) and angelica (Angelica).
Chemicals; If you have no other option and immediate action is required: Use Folido 50% EC at the rate of 0.45 L per 450 L water / acre. (also kills natural aphid enemies)
In 2013, the export of mangoes from Ghana and 27 other African countries was banned from major international markets mainly due to fruit fly infestation. The European Union imposed a ban from May 1 2014, on import of mangoes from India, also due to fruit fly infestation.
The fruit flies (aka peacock flies; 4-7 mm long) that may form a very severe mango cultivation pest are not the Drosophilae (2-4 mm long), but the colourful Tephritidae family (> 5000 species). These attack mango fruits throughout the season and lay their eggs right under the (affected) skin of mature green or ripe fruits. They have three generations and multiply very rapidly. Within one or two days the eggs hatch into white maggots. The maggots feed on the fruit, which starts to rot. After 4 to 17 days, the maggots make holes in the skin and leave the fruit to pupate.
The main fruit fly pests of mango in Africa are Ceratitis capitata (Medfly), C. fasciventris, C. rosa and C. cosyra (the most destructive). C. cosyra is however rapidly displaced by Bactrocera invadens (endemic to Sri Lanka), being predominantly a low-land pest. B. invadens populations quickly increase with the onset of the raining season and also lay eggs in young fruits. Fruit fly populations peak in the late dry season.
Control: Collect all the fallen and affected fruits and bury them deep (>50 cm) into the soil. Or you can use them to breed maggots in a sealed room for fish feed. Natural enemies of tephritids include Diapriidae (tiny wasps; <8mm), Braconidae (also parasitoid wasps) and Oecophylla longinoda (Latreille; a weaver ant).
C. cosyra, but particularly C. fasciventris and Medfly may be effectively controlled by using the host-marking pheromone. B. invadens , the Mediterranean fruit fly (C. capitata) and the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens) may be effectively controlled by the 'sterile insect technique' (releasing overwhelming numbers of sterile insects). The effects of sterile flies are greater than those for parasitoid wasps, but they are complementary. Medfly eggs and instars (right under the peel) may be killed by immersing Ataulfo mangoes for 95 min in warm water at 47°C, also positively modifying pH (producing more palatable fruits), but can also produce a loss of firmness and weight (5%). B. invadens is no more heat tolerant than Medfly.
Bait traps; Pheromone traps (85% methyl-eugenol, 5% Naled (insecticide), 10% saturated sugar) can be used for trapping male flies (Jackson trap). A three-component attractant (ammonium acetate, putrescine, and trimethylamine lures) may be used to trap female population of Medfly. (No wind: 28 m. range). Malathion-bait sprays and Phloxine B (a xanthene dye; D&C Red #28) are equally effective. Of six commercial food-based attractants, Nulure captured the greatest proportion of females: 74% compared with 51-68%. But Mazoferm E802 (with or without Spinosad) and Torula yeast captured 2.4-2.6 times more females and 3.4-4.0 times more males than Nulure (also more effective than GF-120, Hymlure and Biolure).
Fopius arisanus (Sonan); F. arisanus is a tiny but most effective and the most dominant parasitoid wasp. As parasitism increases, fruit fly infestation decreases. Of 3 commonly used bait sprays, which all suppress fruit fly populations, Spinosad and Phloxine B bait sprays are less harmful to these wasps than Malathion bait spray. 
Diachasmimorpha longicaudata; D. longicaudata (longtailed fruit fly wasp) is the most important parasitoid wasp used as part of integrated pest management programs against fruit flies such as B. invadens and Ceratitis species. They lay one or more (when hosts are scarce) eggs in fruit fly larva. Introduction of D. longicaudata poses minimal competitive risk to F. arisanus.
Oecophylla longinoda; O. longinoda is a predator weaver ant that may eat whatever insect or bug they may catch, including caterpillars, beetles, honey bees, driver ants (Dorylus nigricans Ill.) and larvae. O. longinoda is a natural enemy of fruit flies as it eats their larvae. This weaver ant is fiercely territorial and will keep other species of ants (like aphids-farming black ants) at bay. The ants continuously patrol the tree that they live in and may also catch egg-laying female fruit flies in the act, and eat them. B. invadens and C. spp numbers on Kent mangoes may be greatly reduced by Oecophylla longinoda. Weaver ants, however, also feed on honeydew. They may farm a wide range of honeydew-producing Homoptera (bugs with sucking mouthparts, including scales, aphids and mealybugs), but are mostly associated with Coccids (Saissetia; no virus vector). Only when other Coccids are scarce or unavailable, O. longinoda may farm aphids and mealybugs (unarmoured scale insects that are virus vectors). Mainly in small trees and shrubs, the mechanical damage caused by Coccids is related to the size of the attendant ant colony. Dense populations of O. longinoda are supported by interplanting with clove. For the protection of their harvested honeydew, these weaver ants weave a translucent silken tent around living leaves. They use the silk produced by their larvae. It is claimed that pheromones produced by the weaver ants repel egglaying fruit flies. A study in Senegal, however, found that pheromones produced by O. longinoda did hardly repel egglaying females of B. invadens. On the other hand, trees colonized by O. longinoda (in Ghana) had only 6 to 10% fly infestation, compared to 3% fly infestation in trees treated with Cypermethrin plus Dimethoate. (1614 mg per tree)
Praying mantids may also catch and eat fruit flies. Praying mantids are opportunist predators and do not farm any insects or other bugs. Particularly young mantids may not yet be too large to prey on fruit flies (tephredids). The younger and/or smaller the praying mantids are, the smaller the insects (and any other living creature they may catch) they prey on. Praying mantid nymphs initially feed on aphids and fruit flies (drosophila), and as they grow, they skip to larger preys, such as tephritids, and eventually moths and even much bigger preys.
Chemicals; If you have no other option, GF-120 (Dow chemical) may greatly (81-89% after 7-10 weeks) reduce the number of B. invadens pupae per kg mango. Or use Dioptries 80% at the rate of 1 L in 450 L water or Malathion 57% at the rate of 0.5 L to 450 L water / acre. Broad-spectrum insecticides are most damaging to fruit flies' natural enemies such as parasitoid wasps.
- The (red-spotted) Stem Borer (Batocera rufomaculata), is a large long-horned beetle (up to 5 cm long body). It cuts incisions on the bark and lays its eggs (up to 200) inside the cuts or cracks of the (damaged) tree bark, trunk or cavities (eg exposed roots). The beetles feed on the bark of living trees and eat the green of young shoots. The grub of the stem borer pupates and feeds inside the stem of mango trees (and other fruit trees, including durian, figs, avocado, jackfruit and cashew nuts), creating a tunnel towards the surface (up to 2 cm in diameter), eventually becoming a beetle. Sap (from the tree) and frass (or coarse sawdust, from the larvae) may drip from the holes. Older larvae may also tunnel deeper in the trunk or branches. This causes drying of branches, and the tree may die. The incidence of infestation of trunk borer is highly influenced by maximum temperature. Infestation is highest when temperature and humidity are high. For reproduction, it needs to lay its eggs in a stem that is at least 7 cm in diameter. The Stem Borer has been observed in the west coast of Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius, Réunion, Seychelles, Turkey, Israel, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, China, Nepal, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and the West Indies. Adults may live up to 4 months. Full grown larva may be 8 to 10 cm long, and may live up to a year, causing a lot of damage. Larval and prepupal + pupal stage lasts about 280 and 24-29 days.
- The (yellow-spotted) Mango Longhorned Beetle (Batocera rubus) is also a wood borer and about equally large as the Stem Borer. Full grown larvae are 6 to 8 cm long. It attacks various fruit trees, including mango, breadfruit and figs, but also bonsay trees, rubber trees and freshly felled timber. Batocera rubus has been observed in Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, China, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Phillipines, Thailand, Taiwan and Vietnam.
Natural enemies; Tiny parasitoid wasps such as Oobius agrili sp.n. (1 mm long), Spathius agrili, Avetianella batocera, Tetrastichus planipennisi and Avetianella xystrocerae sp.n (1.5 mm long) have been shown effective against (the larvae of) some specific wood-boring beetles (Agrilus planipennis, Agrilus sexsignatus and Xystrocera globosa). Batocera rufus (the mango longhorn beetle), is parasitized (its eggs) by Louricia ovivora, gen. et sp. n.(a moth), and Ooencyrtus batocerae, sp. n.(a wasp)  Oobius batocera is an opportunistic parasitic wasp that parasitizes various insect eggs, including beetle eggs. 
There are also various mites that parasitize Batocera longhorned beetles. Tetrapolipus diastocerae n. sp., Tetrapolipus afrobatocerae n. sp., Tetrapolipus ramarajui n. sp. and Tetrapolipus seemani n. sp. are described. Tetrapolipus afrobatocerae has been observed in Africa, Tetrapolipus hunteri in Australia. Tetrapolipus sulawesiensis is a mite that parasitizes Batocera herculus.
Dastarcus helophoroides; This predator/parasitoid beetle (originally from China and Japan) is an important natural enemy of longhorned beetles. In the larval stage they attack various long horn beetles, including Batocera horsfieldi and Anoplophora glabripennis. Populations are attracted specifically by the frass of their original host. Eggs are laid twice a year, near the host entrance hole, frass-extrusion holes or larval tunnel walls, guided by semiochemicals. The freshly hatched (at about 21°C) first instars (0.7 mm in length) have legs, and actively move to the host. They bite and paralyze the host, and then suck hemolymph and degenerated tissues from the dead or paralyzed prey. Adults can live over 4 years.  Mass production is feasible if hatched larvae are fed cerambycid larvae until they are about 8 mm in length, and subsequently reared on artificial diet (silkworm pupa powder, dry yeasts, yeast extract, sucrose, peptone, squid liver oil, preservatives and distilled water). The full grown larvae are about 18 mm in length. Adults don't readily disperse; they need to be released on each tree separately. And even if you release them at 1.2 m height, their effectiveness decreases with increasing height in the tree. Yet their effectiveness may be very high; up to 85% host mortality. 
Control; The stem borer is active during the night and attracted by light, so that light traps may be effective. Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium commonly used as a biological pesticide, and naturally present in the gut of various caterpillars. This bacterium is toxic to many insects. A specific strain of this bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis ZQ-89 is also toxic to adult long-horned beetles. Prevent the stem borer from laying eggs in the bark by applying a thick layer of coaltar on the stem. Or one may paint (at 0.5%) adult mango trees with monocrotophos or phosalone. One may also specifically apply the insecticides to the potentially affected sites (cracks and cavities), and to twigs and young shoots to deter feeding by adults. One may poke with a hard wire to physically damage, and/or inject insecticides where larvae are suspected. Chloroform, ethyl acetate, Metasystox [demeton-S-methyl] and a mixture of petroleum and kerosene oil (at 5 ml/bore) and ethylene dibromide (at 3 ml/bore) gave 100% mortality of B. rufomaculata larvae. Plaster the holes with wet clay, aluminium phosphide tablets (3 g/hole) and dichlorvos (0.1% spray). Among the chemical treatments, Imidacloprid 17.8% SL, Thiamethoxame 25% WG was found best in management of mango stem borer.
- Idioscoynio chypeabis
- Idioscopus niveosparsus
- Idioscopus clypealis
- Idioscopus nitidulus
- Amritodus atkinsoni aka mango leafhopper
Mango hopper nymphs as well as adults puncture and suck the sap of tender parts of the mango plant. Heavy drainage will cause the leaves to curl and dry. Infested flowers will shrivel and turn brown. Hoppers also secrete honeydew, which may cause sooty mould, inhibiting the leaves from obtaining energy from daylight. Sufficient spacing of trees and pruning of overlapping branches are essential in preventing hopper infestation, as shade (and high humidity) favour hopper multiplication.
Natural enemies: Parasites: Aprostocetus sp., Gonatocerus sp. and Polynema sp. parasitize eggs of Idioscopus clypealis and Idioscopus nitidulus. A preparation of the fungus Beauveria bassiana is also somewhat effective against mango hoppers. Chrysopa lacciperda [Plesiochrysa lacciperda] and Mallada boninensis predate on on nymphs of I. clypealis, I. nitidulus and Amritodus atkinsoni.
Mallada boninensis; This green lacewing is an effective  generalist predator, feeding on mealy bugs (Mani and Krishnamoorthi, 1987), white flies (Selvakumaran et aI., 1996), bollworms and aphids (Kabissa et al., 1996) and on nymphs of Aphis gossypii, Aphis craccivora and Rhopalosiphum maidi , blackflies, psylla and leaf miner. Green lacewings are recommended for the integrated pest management programme (Nehare et al., 2004). M. boninensis feeds well on Corcyra cephalonica eggs (laboratory host) C. cephalonica can be mass reared on Jowar along with groundnut, streptomycin, vitamin complex, Na and K salts.
Control: Spray Imidacloprid (0.005%; 0.3 ml/L water), acephate 75SP (1.5 g/L water), Etofenprox (0.03%), Phosalone (1.5 ml/L water), Carbaryl (0.15%; 3 g/L water), Monocrotophos (0.04%), Phosphamidon (0.05%) or Methyl Parathion (0.05%).
- Spray 3 times; First spray should be given during the early stage of flower formation. The second spray should be given at a flower size of 6 to 8 cm, still before blooming. The third spray should be given after fruit setting, when the fruits are the size of a pea. Or:
- First spray should be given during the early stage of flower formation. The second spray should be given 2 weeks later. Or:
- Spray 3 times; First spray of imidacloprid (0.005%; 0.3 ml/L water) should be given during the early stage of flower formation. The second spray, thiamethoxam (0.005%; 0.2 g./L water) or acephate 75SP (1.5 g/L water) should be given at after fruit setting. If hopper infestation persists, the third spray, of carbaryl (0.15%; 3 g/L water) should be given prior to fruit maturation.
Imidacloprid residues persist in peel for 60 days and in pulp for 50 days. Mature Dashehari fruits at harvest (after 85 days of spraying) were free from imidacloprid residues.
This midge (Erosomyia indica) lays eggs in new inflorescence (preventing flower and fruit set) and new leaves around it, and then the larvae will eat their way through. The maggots penetrate and feed on the tender parts of the plant, such as shoots, buds and flower buds. The flowers will dry and fall off. For pupation, the mature larvae will drop into the soil. The adult midge lives only one day and doesn't cause any damage. Maggots from eggs laid on new fruits will eat their way into the fruit, which will turn yellow and drop. The inflorescence midge is an important pest in India in particular.
Infloresence midge is parasitized by Platygaster sp., Eupelmus sp. and Tetrastichus sp., which all also parasitize Gall Midges. The inflorescence midge is also parasitized by Aprostocetus sp. and Mirufens longifunculata. 
Another mango midge, Procystiphora mangiferae is parasitized by Pirene sp. , which also parasitizes mango gall midges.
Chemicals: If you have no other option, Parathion, Dimethoate, Phosphamidon and Endosulfan much reduced infestations on mango shoots. The most effective insecticide for control appeared to be phosphamidon (Dimecron), whether mixed with diazinon or not, as a foliar spray. 
There are various mango gall flies:
- Erosomyia mangifereae or Procontarinia frugivora has been observed in the Philippines, India, West Indies and Brazil.
- Asynapta sp. in West Indies.
- Dasyneura mangifereae in Hawaii.
- P. allahabadensis, P. biharana, P. brunneigallicola, P. viridigallicola, P. echinogalliperda, P. keshopurensis, P. mangifoliae, P. tenuispatha, P. amraeomyia and Dasyneura amaramanjarae have been observed in India (and some in Pakistan).
- P. mangicola in China and Japan.
The tiny (1-2 mm) mango gall flies lay their eggs on the surface of young leaves, buds, shoots and flowers. After hatching, the maggots will eat their way into the plant tissue. This will show as galls (3-4mm) on the leaves. Once mature, they drop to the ground to pupate. The holes that they left behind are susceptible to fungal infections. Infested fruits initially show small (1mm) brownish lesions, which grow as the fruit grows. In young fruits, the exit holes are usually near the point of attachment, on the bottom side. Most infested fruits fall to the ground before ripening. Optimal conditions for reproduction is 26°C and a relative humidity of 70 to 80%. Infestation particularly occurs at bud-burst stage, at fruit set and on tender leaves of new flushes.
Natural enemies; Parasitic insects such as Platygaster sp., Eupelmus sp., Tetrastichus sp., Systasis dasyneurae , Pirene sp. and the predator ants Formica rufa (aka red wood ant, native to Europe and North America), Oecophylla longinoda (weaver ant native to West and Central Africa) and Oecophylla smaragdina (native to South-east Asia) and Camponotus sp. (aka carpenter ant, native to forests world wide).
Baits; Coriander oil attracts Erosomyia. D. amaramanjarae is attracted by a mixture of glycine, sodium hydroxide, ammonium carbonate and strong ammonia solution. Bordeaux mixture is a repellent.
Chemicals; Various systemic insecticides are equally effective: Dimecron (phosphamidon), Anthio (formothion) and Metasystox (demeton-S-methyl). Most effective is a mixture of phosphamidon (0.03%) and diazinon (0.03%).
Bark Eating Caterpillar
The Bark Eating Caterpillar (Indarbela quadrinotata and Indarbela tetraonis) aka Mango Bark Feeder has been observed in India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. The moth has a wingspan of maximally 2 cm. This wood boring insect may attack a wide variety of trees, including mango, guava, jujube, pomegranate and apple trees. In plantations, infestation generally starts with the onset of premonsoon rains. The main symptom is plastered dark-brown masses on tree trunks and large branches. These webbed masses consist of chewed on wood remainders / frass, excrements and silken thread. Eggs are laid in clusters on the bark of trees. Initially, the newly hatched larvae occur in groups browsing on the bark. Then they migrate and lodge in shoots and buds. As the larvae grow, they start tunneling into the wood, up to 25 cm deep. This tunnel is kept free of frass. The frass and excreta from the tunnels are used for constructing the extended tunnel mouth (sleeve). As the larvae get bigger, they make the tunnel wider. The larvae hide in these tunnels during the day and come out at night to eat the surrounding bark of the tree. The rate of feeding is faster during the hottest months. The larva minimally eats 16 mg / day, at 12.5 degrees Celsius. The maximum is 166 mg/day at 35 degrees Celsius. Similarly, food consumption is maximum at 96% RH and minimum at 56% RH. When large patches of bark are eaten away, the tree gets increasingly exposed to various bacteria, fungi etc. And if substantial areas of bark have been eaten, the tree will eventually die. Prolonged water stress decreases the resistance of the host tree. The larvae pupate inside the tunnel and the emerging moth leaves its "pupal skin" at the mouth of the borer hole. The pupa is 1.5 cm long. The larval stage lasts for about 8 months. The pupal period lasts for about 9 days. It has a little more than one generation per year. 
Natural enemies; Two fungi; Aspergillus candidus and Beauveria bassiana have been reported to cause mortality of the Bark Eating Caterpillar in the field. Laboratory trials have indicated 100% larval mortality by these fungi. The Bark Eating Caterpillar is parasitized by Podagrionella indarbelae ('metallic' parasitic wasps), which may be fed the eggs of I. tetraonis. Podagrionella is found in tropical African countries, Senegal, Algeria, Malawi, France, Spain, India, Thailand, Indonesia, The Philippines, Australia
Control; prevent overcrowding by sufficient spacing in between trees. One may insert a sharp metallic probe/spike into each tunnel/hole to kill the larvae. One may seal the tunnel entrance using tar or wax. Of the various insecticides screened against this insect, monocrotophos (0.1 %), quinalphos (0.1 %) and fenvalerate (0.08%) gave best results.
Eudocima (aka Othreis) are very large moths (up to 10 cm wingspan) with orange abdomen. Adult moths have special sclerotised structures at the tip of their proboscis with which they are capable of drilling a hole through the hard rind of fruits, and suck out the juices. The resulting wound is used by various bugs and diseases to attack the fruit (including mango, banana, grapes, orange, clementine, kiwi, lychee, pineapple, peach, apricot, papaya apple and pear). Eudocima moths look like dead leaves when in hiding mode. Until they show their bright orange hindwings with broad black margins and a large black spot in the middle. Mature larvae are 4 to 5 cm long. These moths have been observed in virtually any tropical country, except for the Americas. The adults fly (very well), feed and mate during the night.
The most widespread Eudocima specie is Eudocima fullonia (aka Eudocima phalonia), followed by Eudocima materna and Eudocima homaena. Eudocima homaena occurs in Costa Rica, Thailand, India, Sri Lanka, Hong Kong, China  and Chinese Taipei . Eudocima larvae do not feed on mangoes, nor the mango trees. Instead, the larvae feed on very specific Fabaceae and Menispermaceae. Variation in the alkaloids associated with certain menisperm genera (eg quaternary alkaloids in Tinospora) may explain the very specific (or even exclusive) moth–host plant relationships. In Australia the larvae of Eudocima salaminia feed almost exclusively on the forest vine, Stephania japonica. Eudocima homaena larva may feed on Cocculus hirsutus, Tinospora acuminata, Diploclisia glaucescens , Achyranthes cocculus, Cissampelas pareira , and on specific Cyclea (not Cyclea peltata), Menispermum and Tiliacora species , but not on other Tinospora species, Stephania species, nor on Erythrina indica.
Control; Regularly check the orchard during the night using a flashlight. The adult Eudocima moths have large eyes that glow red when illuminated. Adult Praying mantids may eat large moths such as Fruit-piercing moths. The female Praying mantis lays a few hundred eggs in a cluster (ootheca) attached to an object like a branch or trunk. Large species of mantids may have a length of up to 12 cm. Their colour is usually adapted to the environment they naturally live in. They have about 2 generations per year. Young mantids look like adults, but don't have wings. Adult females often have no wings either, or reduced wings. Eudocima are parasitized by Euplectrus  and Trichogramma. Bats may be major predators.
The Honeydew Moth (Cryptoblabes gnidiella aka Albinia casazzar aka Albinia wockiana) aka Christmasberry Moth survives only in warm climates (all over the world). It attacks a large variety of crops, including mangoes, banana, oranges, clementines, grapes, loquats, pomegranates, avocado, coffee, maize and rice. The caterpillars (1 cm long) mainly feed superficially on fruits, but may also feed on leaves, flower, shoots and bark. The newly hatched larvae and the adults, however, solely feed on honeydew. The adults are active during the night. Females mate 1 to 4 times during their entire life. One Honeydew Moth may lay up to 100 eggs within 2 days after mating, on fruit or leaves (averagely 150 in total, during lifetime). These eggs hatch within one week (or longer, in colder regions). It has several generations per year, depending on the climate. Adult moths are good flyers (1 to 2 cm wingspan) and may rapidly spread to poorly maintained orchards (infested with honeydew).
Natural enemies; Scolothrips sexmaculatus and Orius spp. prey on the eggs and early-instar larvae. The Honeydew Moth is parasitized by Phanerotoma sp. and Trichogramma Platneri (both parasitoid wasps).
Trichogramma are extremely tiny wasps (< 0.5 mm). They insert their eggs into the eggs of the moth. The larvae feed, grow and pupate inside the host egg, which converts the colour of the host egg from white to black. The emerging wasp eats its way out and is ready to mate. The eggs from unmated females will produce only males, whereas the eggs from mated females will produce both males and females. Adult Trichogramma feed on nectar from flowers. One female wasp may parasitize 50 moth eggs during her life. The optimum conditions for Trichogramma are 20 to 27 degrees Celsius and 60% RH. Most insecticides kill Trichogramma.
Control; This moth is attracted by honeydew secreted by aphids, scale insects and other honeydew secreting bugs. It is therefore most effectively controlled by controlling all honeydew secreting bugs. Its instars are highly susceptible to Bacillus thuringiensis.
These brown moths (Orthaga euadrusalis and Orthaga exvinacea) are a minor mango (and Cashew nut) pest. They have been observed in India and Indonesia. Females mate only one time during their whole life. The leaf webber lays eggs on young leaves and buds and creates a web around pods, leaves and flowers for its larvae to pupate in. Such a webbed cluster may contain several larvae. The Leaf Webber causes relatively very little damage, as the larvae merely scrape and eat from the surface of the leaves.
Control: Application of Serratia marcescens (a bacterium), Aspergillus flavus (a fungus) and Beauveria bassiana (a fungus) are all very effective. The leaf webber is parasitized by Brachymeria lasus, Hormius sp., Pediobius bruchicida and Tetrastichus sp. and also by Trichogramma chilonis and Trichogramma pretiosum.
Mango Fruit Borer;
The Mango fruit borer (Citripestis eutraphera; a moth) has been observed in Indonesia, India and Australia. Its lays its eggs (< 1 mm) on fruit or stalk. The larvae feed on mango pulp (and cashews) and cause premature fruit drop, mainly in young fruit. The larvae hatch in 2 days. They are initially white, then red-violet when young, turning to dark blue as they grow. Hatched larvae initially feed on the peel of the fruit. Then they bore into into the fruit and feed for 12 to 15 days before they pupate in the fallen fruit, or in the soil. Often there is more than one larva in a fruit with a total of 15 recorded in one fruit..
Control: Its natural enemies are parasitoid wasps (Aleiodes sp. and Euplectrus sp.) and a parasitoid fly (Blepharella lateralis).  To protect the stems, cover them with a cloth or Jute and paste charcoal over it. Fostoxin tablets can also be placed and sealed in the holes made by the borers.
Mango Shoot Borer
Mango Shoot Borer (Penicillaria jocosatrix) or Velvet mango slug; P. jocosatrix (wingspan 2 - 2.5 cm) has been observed in Indonesia, The Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam, Guam, Hawaii, Thailand and Australia. Its larvae; the caterpillar of this moth (up to 3 cm long) causes damage to shoots, stems, inflorescence, flowers and fruits of the mango tree. Pestalotiopsis anacardiacearum sp. nov. (fungal leaf rot) is found on dead mango leaves associated with P. jocosatrix (the Mango Shoot Borer). Eggs hatch in 3-5 days. Larval development takes 8-10 days. Mature larvae pupate in the soil and the moth emerges 16-20 days later.
Natural enemies: Euplectrus sp. (a parasitoid wasp) and Blepharella lateralis (a parasitoid fly) may effectively decrease Mango shoot borer infestation , and are also effective against the Mango fruit borer.
Mango Seed Borer
The Mango Seed Borer (Deanolis sublimbalis aka Autocharis albizonalis) is the Red banded mango caterpillar. It is a mango pest in Australia, Burma, The Philippines, Malaysia, Vietnam, China, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Severe infestation may cause up to 50% yield reduction. This grey snout moth (wingspan 2 cm) lays its eggs on the top of the mango. Its larvae (one or more per fruit) develop within the fruit in 2 to 3 weeks. Initially they feed on the pulp, and then on the seed. The fruit will split, rot and drop. The mature larvae will pupate in the soil.
Natural enemies: Rychium attrisimum are wasps that feed on the larvae of the Mango Seed Borer as they leave the fruit. Trichogramma chilonis and Trichogramma chilotreae are tiny parasitoid wasps that parasitize the eggs of the Mango Seed Borer and hundreds of other moths. They are so small that with the naked eye you cannot see what they are. They have a wingspan of 0.5 mm. They live about 2 weeks, and may lay several eggs in a single moth egg.
Chemicals: If you have no other option, Deltamethrin and Cyfluthrin are most effective.
Mango Tip Borer
Mango Tip / Shoot / Bark / Trunk / Twig Borer (Chlumetia transversa) aka aka Shoot Boring Caterpillar is a serious mango (and litchi) pest. The major symptom is drying of the tip of young shoots. Female moths lay their eggs on tender leaves. Newly hatched larvae bore into these leaves. As they grow they bore into young shoots near the growing point, and subsequently tunnel down. The leaves of affected shoots will droop. It has four generations each year, and in colder regions overwinters as pupae in young branches and bark. Generations are overlapped. Full grown caterpillars are 2 to 2.5 cm long. C. transversa has been observed in Indonesia, The Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, Taiwan, China, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Australia.
The Mango Tip Borer is parasitised by Bracon greeni, Meteorus sp. and Goryphus sp , which are all parasitoid wasps. Its larvae are also parasitized by the fly Megaselia chlumetiae sp. nov. Its larvae enter the host and develop by consuming the host's internal tissues. Pupariation normally takes place within the host's empty skin.
Control; If you have no other option, spraying 2.5% deltamethrin EC for three times may be most effective (87% control efficiency) and the least harmful to the tree. Four insecticides tested; 80% dichlorvos EC(dilution of 1250), 47.5% chlorpyrifos EC(dilution of 1000), 2.5% deltamethrin EC (dilution of 2500) and 2% abamectin EC(dilution of 2000) were applied on mango trees during 2 months. Second best was 2% abamectin EC at a dilution of 2000. The other two insecticides were less effective, which might be due to the development of resistance in pests against these insecticides on account of longer repeated applications.
The Nettle Caterpillar, aka the Blue-striped Nettle Grub (Parasa lepida aka Latoia lepida; 2 to 3 cm long) has been observed in China, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Japan and especially Indonesia. Parasa lepida may infest various fruit trees, including mango, cherry, persimmon, Indian almond and rose apple, and also coffee, tea, cocoa and palms, with a preference for coconut trees. The caterpillar of this species have spines containing a poison that causes serious irritation and inflammation in humans upon contact. It feeds on the leaves and shoots of the mango tree. Initially, defoliation will be localized, affecting only one or a few trees. Thus the infestation is easily identified. Subsequently, as new generations of this pest emerge, the infested area may rapidly expand. The female moth lays eggs on mango leaves. The cocoons are laid side by side. The cocoons are so hard and stout that they remain on the trunks for 5 to 6 years after spinning. Cocoons from which adults have successfully emerged have clear emergence holes. Newly hatched caterpillars will feed on the underside of the epidermis, stripping it off the leaflets. They often begin where the eggs were laid; at the tip. Then they eat the edges of the leaflet and eat large areas of the lamina. When they have finished developing, the whole leaflet will have been consumed systematically from tip to base, leaving only the midrib. On this midrib, the notched indentations are the only visible remainders left by the caterpillars. 
Parasa lepida is predated on by Agriosphodrus dohrni (The Assassin Bug, native to China, India, Indonesia). This 2 cm long Assasin Bug may be reared (fed every 3 days) on yellow mealworms, in plastic cases, under a temperature of 23°C and RH of 50%. The Assassin Bug may feed on all kinds of bugs, including aphids, beetles, hoppers', worms and caterpillars.
The great tit (Parus major) is a predator of Parasa lepida cocoons in Japan. The most effective parasites are Apanteles parasae (a parasitoid wasp) and Chaetexorista javana (a parasitoid fly).
Salt spray from the sea and the resulting plant stress (considerable damage) may negatively affect the Parasa lepida moth.
The main mango scales are:
- Coccids ; Coccus viridus (soft green scales) and Coccus hesperidum (soft brown scales)
- wax scales ; Ceroplastes spp.
- armoured scales ; Aulacaspis tubercularis, Chloropulvinaria polygonata (the Mango Green Shield Scale) and Aspidiotus destructor.
- Mealybugs (pseudococcidae) ; Drosicha mangiferae, Rastrococcus iceryoides ("Mango mealybugs") and Paracoccus marginatus ("Papaya mealybug", which is also a mango pest)
Mango scales suck the sap from the leaves, and as a result, the leaves start drying. This may cause branches to die, blemished fruits and premature dropping. Scales are small insects (1 to 7 mm), generally immobile; as if shells are glued to the plant. Only the newly hatched crawlers (emerging from under a big scale) move to their feeding site. Soft scales produce honeydew, which may cause Sooty mould. Armoured scales don't excrete honeydew. The papaya mealybug has been observed in Mexico, Florida, Antigua, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Haiti, St Kitts, Martinique, Puerto Rico, St Martin, St Barthélémy, Virgin Islands.
Natural enemies; Natural enemies of scales include parasitic wasps, ladybird beetles and lacewings, which are killed by broad-spectrum pesticides. Because of their honeydew secretion, scales may be protected / farmed by specific ants (eg arboreal ants (Azteca instabilis) farming soft green scales). Some fungal pathogens effect this symbiotic interaction. Parasitoid insects use the honeydew secreted by coccids (and aphids etc) as an infochemical to locate their hosts. R. iceryoides is parasitized by Dinocarsis sp., Microterys flavus, Metastenus concinnus and Tetrastichus sp. Of the parasitoids Acerophagus papayae and Anagyrus loecki, A. papayae is the most effective in decimating the papaya mealybug. (Meyerdirk)
Lacewings; Most lacewings (also) feed on plant material, such as pollen. Particularly green lacewings such as Mallada boninensis, Mallada astur and Mallada signata are mainly predatory and very effective. They are relatively small (length up to 1.5 cm, including wings). Adults are active during the night, and may be attracted by flashlight. Eggs are attached to leaves and hatch within 4 days. The larval period lasts 12 days, and the pupal period lasts about 9 days. Adults live just one month. One may commercially rear millions of green lacewings for biological control of mango pests.
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (aka Mealybug Ladybird) is a (4 mm long) predatory ladybird that eats mealybugs, soft scales (Coccidae) and armoured scales (Diaspididae). Originally from Australia, introduced in Florida and commercially available as a mealybug control agent. It needs warm, humid weather. Survival temperature range is 15-35°C. Life cycle on average is 30 days under optimum conditions: 23°C and 60-70% humidity. Optimal temperature for adults is 28°C. They are active between 16°C and 33°C, and 70 to 80% RH. Longevity of females is 70 days max. It produces 4 generations per year. Development is accelerated at higher temperatures. At 25°C it may lay a total of 200 to 700 eggs (av. 400), at the rate of averagely 9 eggs per day. They preferrably lay their eggs in the egg mass of mealybugs. The eggs hatch in 5 to 6 days. There are 4 larval stages, and the entire larval period lasts about 12 to 17 days. At pupation stage they are about 13 mm long. Adults emerge after 7 to 10 days. These beetles prefer high concentrations of mealybugs to predate on, and will fly away when concentrations of mealybugs are lower. During its larval development, one C. montrouzieri may eat 2400 eggs of C. polygonata. Unfortunately, the filaments produced by its larvae look very similar to mealybugs. Initially release 1 or 2 new active beetles per square meter in the morning, before it gets hot. Subsequently regularly release 2 to 3 beetles per tree. The beetles will be killed by pesticides, but tolerate copper-fungicides.
Chilocorus kuwanae; This ladybird beetle is a primary predator of wax scales (Ceroplastes sp.). This ladybird beetle is attracted by (spraying) methyl jasmonate, mainly due to the terpenoid compound alpha-pinene 
Microweisea coccidivora; a tiny (1mm long) predatory ladybird beetle from Florida and South Carolina (USA) that feeds particularly on armoured scales.
Azya orbigera; The larvae of this ladybird beetle predate on Coccus viridis. These larvae are relatively immune to ant attacks (ants that farm coccids), due to their sticky waxy filaments. Also, the presence of ants reduces A. orbigera larvae getting parasitized. A. orbigera has been observed in Colombia, Guyana, Venezuela, Bélize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, México, USA, Trinidad and the West Indies.
Sumnius cardoni (a predatory ladybird) predates on nymphs of D. mangiferae (mealybug).
Coccodiplosis sp (a parasitic gall midge), Cybocephalus sp. (a predatory beetle) and Scymnus coccivora (a predatory ladybird) predate on R. iceryoides (mealybug).
Cryptochetum sp. (parasitic flies) parasitize the 1st- and 2nd-instar nymphs of the Drosicha mangiferae (mealybug).
Coccophagus scutellaris parasitizes Coccus hesperidum by laying eggs in its gut. When parasited and parasiteless hosts are available, the female of Coccophagus deposits more eggs on the latter.
Thomsonisca pakistanensis is a parasitic wasp that most commonly parasitizes Aspidiotus destructor. A. destructor is also parasitized by Aneristus ceroplastae (tiny parasitic wasp), Comperiella bifasciata (parasitic wasp also effective against yellow scales; Aonidiella citrina), Chartocerus sp. and Chrysonotomyia sp. (both also parasitic wasps) 
Aphytis sp; This tiny (2 to 3 mm long) parasitic wasp parasitizes Aulacaspis tubercularis (up to 46% parasitism in a test).
Lecanicillium lecanii; This fungus kills various coccids, including Coccus hesperidum. Also Ceroplastes sp. may be killed by Lecanicillium lecanii. Adding body materials of life coccids to a multi-generation culture (medium), significantly keeps the vigor and higher virulence of this fungus. .
Control: Collect the affected leaves and burn them. Spraying chlorogenic acid (a phenol naturally present in coffee beans) stimulates locomotory activity of the green scale Coccus viridis, thus minimizing their feeding. 
If you have no other option: Use Metasystox 25% EC at the rate of 0.3 L in 450 L water or Fotidal 50 EC at the rate of 0.5 L in 450 L water / acre. Or spray mineral oil at low concentrations (not damaging the trees) after fruit picking, but not during flowering. Don't spray during droughts or excessive heat.
The Mango Stone Weevil
The Stone Weevil (Sternochetus/Curculio/Rhynchaenus/Cryptorhynchus mangiferae) aka Mango Seed / Nut Weevil is a short weevil; 7 mm to 1 cm long and 4 mm wide. It possesses a tough exoskeleton. Weevils are a type of beetle. The scales of the Stone Weevil may be of various colours; shades of black, grey, red or yellow. The Stone Weevil has been observed in many mango-producing countries all over the world (including Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Australia, USA). Adult weevils can hardly fly, and this pest spreads by fruit transports. At dusk and during the night, the adults feed on leaves and young shoots. The female lays her eggs on and just under the surface of the peel of young (about 3 cm long) mangoes. Each female can lay up to 15 eggs per day and may lay several eggs on one fruit. The Stone Weevil prefers the sweetest (high-sugar) varieties of mango. After laying an egg, the weevil will make an incision in the fruit to let the sap from the fruit cover the egg, and to make it stick to the fruit. The amber-coloured sap will harden out, and remain as a protective resin mark over the egg. Newly emerged grubs are white and slender, and have no legs. They bore their way through the pulp towards the seed, within 2 days. Larvae and pupae develop inside the fruit. Pupation occurs in the seed. No external symptoms of attack are readily visible on infested fruits. Once matured (which takes up to 2 months), they eat their way out. About 25% of adult the weevils over-winter in the seed. They can live 2 years. One generation is produced each year.
Natural enemies; The Stone Weevil is effectively predated on by Weaver ants such as Oecophylla smaragdina and Oecophylla longinoda. Weaver ants, however, may also farm (for the produced honeydew) and protect aphids and various mango scales against their natural enemies.
Weevils are also predated on by Praying mantids, which may eat anything they can catch, including flies, beetles and moths. Adults readily mate in captivity and have one generation per season. Rearing mantids requires rearing of other insects, such as aphids and drosophilae (for nymphs), tephritids (for young mantids) and moths (for adult mantids) in large quantities. Females lay their eggs in a sticky cluster of several cm long. Nymphs (very tiny praying mantids) emerge from eggs. The developing nymphs need to be separated and fed aphids/drosophilae, or they will become cannibalistic.
Control; Collect and destroy all fallen fruits, seeds, leaves, twigs etc. If you have no other option, spraying Fenthion (0.01%) on the trees at the time of oviposition is found to be effective. Fenthion, however, is extremely toxic to beneficial insects , so that applying Fenthion may lead to secondary infestation of Mealybugs. A single spray of tiametoksam (Actara™ SC 240g/ℓ a.i.) at the roots during flower set may be effective for seasonal control. In Alphonso and Bagan Pali mangoes, a single spray (at dusk) of Monocrotophos 36EC 1ml per 1 litre of water was found to be very effective (97.5% to 100% mortality)  In a laboratory test, Beauveria bassiana was somewhat effective (30% mortality in 14 days), but in an orchard setting there was no effect at all.
The Mango Pulp Weevil
The Mango Pulp Weevil (Sternochetus frigidus or Cryptorrhynchus gravis) has been observed in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. This female weevil lays eggs (25-60 eggs / week) on mango fruits (minimum 6 cm diameter). Newly hatched larvae tunnel into the fruit pulp. The larvae form a chamber (constructed of frass) next to the seed, from which they eat their way through the pulp. Pupation occurs within these chambers. Matured weevils leave the ripe fruit through an exit hole in the peel. Prior to this exit, nothing shows that the fruit is infected. They are fully matured after 6 weeks; able to mate, repeatedly. One complete life cycle varies from 34-35 days. More than half of adult weevils hibernate in seeds. Mango Pulp Weevils are very poor flyers (maximum 90 cm horizontally).
Thrips, or thunderflies, thunderbugs, storm flies, thunderblights, storm bugs, corn flies or corn lice may feed on many plants. Frankliniella bispinosa, Frankliniella kelliae (Florida, Caribbeans) and Frankliniella occidentalis (California, Israel) also feed on mango. They feed on young leaves, shoots and flowers, causing discoloration and deformation.
Thrips are tiny (1 mm long on average; varying from 0.5 mm to 1.4 cm). They are not good flyers, but may readily be carried by the wind. Given the right conditions, they may rapidly multiply and form large swarms. To inspect trees for thrips infestation, just hold a bucket and shake a branch, and some thrips will fall off the infested branch into the bucket.
Control: Natural enemies of thrips are Green lacewings (eg Mallada boninensis, Mallada signata), Orius insidiosus, Anystis agilis and Hypoaspis aculifer. Biological insecticides such as Beauveria bassiana and Verticillium lecanii may be effective.
Orius insidiosus is a 3 mm long pirate bug (aka insidious flower bug). They feed on thrips, mites, small caterpillars and various insect (including aphids') eggs and larvae, and also pollen. They prefer eating thrips over aphids. Orius may kill several thrips per day, beyond their need for nutrients. Adults fly well, and may readily disperse, looking for prey. O. insidiosus may be mass reared on armyworms. They may occasionally sting people, which may hurt, but is completely harmless. Eggs are laid and embedded in the plant tissue of the fruit, stem, leave stalks and big veins at the underside of leaves. From eggs to adults, Orius goes through 5 larval stages. This takes about 16 to 18 days at 25°C. They are predatory at each stage (except as pupae). Adults live 3 to 4 weeks. As Orius albidipennis lays more eggs and has a shorter lifecycle, it may be a better biocontrol agent than Orius insidiosus. Release at 2 to 3 Orius per square meter.
Whiteflies (incl. Aleurodicus rugioperculatus, Aleurodicus dispersus, Aleurothrixus floccosus, Aleyrodes proletella, Bemisia tabaci, Paraleyrodes bondar, Siphoninus phillyreae, Trialeurodes vaporariorum) attack various crops, including mango, orange, tomato and watermelon.
Whiteflies suck the saps from leaves, causing direct damage. They are also vectors of various diseases, including viruses. Additionally they may produce a lot of honeydew, which may lead to sooty mould. The density of the whitefly is positively correlated with maximum temperature and negatively correlated with relative humidity.
Natural enemies; Various animals predate on whiteflies, including green lacewings, Orius insidiosus and ladybird beetles. The minute parasitic wasps Encarsia guadeloupae and Encarsia haitiensi very effectively cause reduction in the population of Aleurodicus despersus.
Control Dissolve 1 kg of sugar per 1 L of water. Poor in plastic transparent bottle. Drill holes in the upper part (above water level); small enough for whiteflies to enter, but not for bees. Put the lid on. Hang 2 to 3 bottles in each tree at flower set. Renew weekly.
Integrated Pest Management
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) integrates proper orchard managment (such as sufficient spacing of trees, pruning off overlapping branches, the use of bait traps and removing affected fruits and plant parts) and the use of a variety of anti-bugs (natural enemies of mango bugs), so that they are complementary and sufficiently reduce all pest populations, minimizing the use of pesticides.
Below is an example of the complementary use of anti-bugs, for both predation and parasitism.
Preliminary requirements: A sealed, ventilated room. Constant supply of mangoes, or grapes, kiwi, lychee, pineapple, peach, apricot, papaya, apple or pear, to feed and rear Drosophilae (2-4mm long 'fruit flies'), Tephritids (4-7 mm long 'true' fruit flies) and Eudocima sp. (fruit piercing moths; up to 10 cm wingspan). One section needs daylight exposure, for growing Fabacae / Menispermacae for the Eudocima sp. to lay their eggs, and for their larvae to feed on the leaves. This sealed room should rather be too large than too small to prevent a lack of food for the reared predators. Any surplus of eggs and/or larvae may be sold as fish feed.
- Rearing Praying Mantids to predate on moths, caterpillars, weevils and young Longicorn beetles by adults, and on fruit flies, hoppers and midgets by young mantids. These mantids may be reared on fruit flies (Drosophila and Tephretids) and specific moths. Young mantids should be separated after hatching, in boxes. Nymphs should be fed Drosophilae. Young mantids should be fed Tephretids. Adult mantids are fed Eudocima moths or Armyworm moths.
- Rearing green lacewings (Mallada signata, Mallada boninensis) to predate on aphids, scales, hoppers and thrips in the field. These lacewings may be reared on Eudocima sp. eggs collected from the Fabacae / Menispermacae in the sealed room, or on Armyworm eggs.
- Rearing the parasitic wasps Fopius arisanus and/or Diachasmimorpha longicaudata to parasitize Tephritids (fruit flies). Tephritid eggs should be collected from fruits in the sealed room. To prevent the fruit fly eggs from drying out, the eggs should be kept on a moist substrate. To prevent molding, a constant air current should be provided during the time required for parasitoid development.
The second phase may be more labour intensive. To rear Tetrastichus sp. and Euplectrus sp. or Trichogramma sp. for the purpose of parasitizing scales, moths, midges and longicorn beetles, one most collect eggs from all species in the field. Instead, one may also rear subject pests.
As an alternative for green lacewings, one may use the combination of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (mass reared on Plancoccus citri on potatoes or squash , for predating on scales) and Orius insidiosus (mass reared on Armyworms (which are best reared on Bermudagrass), for predating on aphids, thrips and small caterpillars). This allows for a more targeted approach (if there is only 1 pest, eg scales). This may also be a better combination (together with Praying mantids) because adult Praying mantids prefer to predate on lacewings (15 mm long) over the much smaller C. montrouzieri (4 mm) and O. orius (3 mm).
Bugs cause damage to the mango tree, which makes the tree more susceptible to disease. Many bugs are also disease vectors; they transport the viruses, fungi etc. to the mango tree. Successfully combatting mango bugs, is therefore key to prevention and control of mango diseases. Using chemicals to fight mango diseases and/or bugs, however, may actually result in killing natural enemies of the bugs that spread disease.
Anthracnose is caused by the fungi Colletotrichum acutatum  and Glomerella cingulata . It particularly affects young shoots, flowers and fruits. The disease is stimulated by high humidity, frequent rains or mists, and a temperature range of 24 to 32°C. The results of this disease are black spots on panicles, leaf spot, blossom blight, withered tip, twig blight and fruit rot. Particulary young and tender shoots and foliage are affected, causing die back of young branches. Wounded twigs may also be infected and may sometimes die off. Fruits develop black spots and rotting and young fruits may shrivel and prematurely drop. If the entire inflorescence is destroyed, no fruits will set.
Where? It widely occurs in the orchard and in storage, Anthracnose has been reported in Argentina, Florida, Hawaii, India, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, South Africa and Trinidad.
Control: Burn all fallen leaves. Prune affected twigs and burn them. Apply Bordeaux paste on cut ends. To prevent blossom infection, spray twice at 15 days interval during flowering with Carbendazirn (Bavistin 0.1%). To prevent foliar infection, spray copper fungicides (0.3%) twice a week. Apply a teaspoon of dish detergent per spray load to make the copper sulfate stick. Prevent the copper sulfate from dripping on the ground to prevent contamination of the soil and the roots of the tree. Picked mangoes should be submerged for 15 minutes in hot water (52°C) with Carbendazim (0.1%). One may also dip the mangoes in 500 ppm Benomyl and 900 ppm Thiobendazole. C. acutatum is also effectively inhibited by the synthetic strigolactone GR24.
Bacterial black spot (bacterial canker) is a bacterial disease caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. It affects many varieties. Initially, irregular small water soaked lesions will appear on the leaves. These will extend into patches of dead tissue. The leaves will turn yellow and die. The lesions will also appear on the the stalk of the leaves, twigs and fruits. The fruits will then turn brown and black, and burst open. The released fluid is filled with bacteria that will contaminate the rest of the tree or other fruits in storage.
Control: Immediately spray Agrimycin-100 (0.01%) or Streptocycline (0.01%), 3 times at 10 days interval. Subsequently spray Copper Oxychloride (0.3%) or Carbendazim (Bavistin 0.1%) once a month.
Die back (Botryodiplodia (Lasiodiplodia) theobromae aka Physalospora disrupta/quercuum/rhodina/glandicola) may occur any time of the year. It is characterized by advancing discoloration and darkening of the bark. It extends along the veins of the leaves, causing browning and upwards rolling of the margins. Eventually the leaves shrivel and fall. Twigs and branches dry and defoliate, and may drain a yellow-brown gummy fluid. It may look as if the tree has been exposed to a bush fire.
Control: Prune diseased twigs 10 cm below the affected area. Paste the cut ends with Copper Oxychloride (0.3%) and also spray Copper Oxychloride (0.3%) on affected trees.
Diplodia Stem-end Rot
This fungus (Lasiodiplodia theobromae) may enter the mango where the skin or stem has been injured mechanically. It will form a black circle around the pedicel.
Control: Prevent mechanical injuries. After picking, submerge mangoes for 15 minutes in hot water (53°C) with Carbendazirn (0.1%).
Mango Black Blight
Black blight is caused by a fungus (Capnodium mangiferum).
Mango blight is caused by Erwinia bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae). Many spots appear on the leaves which cause a reduction in growth and yield.
Control: Use Dithane M 45 at the rate of 1.7g/L (450 L water per acre).
Mango malformation (Fusarium mangiferae) has been reported in Australia, Bangladesh, Brazil, Central America, Cuba, Egypt, India, Israel, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, South Africa, Sudan, Switzerland, UAE and the USA. It is a disease caused by fusarium species  (F. subglutinans from Egypt, Florida, Israel, Malaysia and South Africa, F. sterilihyphosum from Brazil and South Africa, and Fusarium sp. nov. and F. proliferatum from Malaysia)Free Full Text. The disease is stimulated by relatively cool conditions; 10 to 27°C, and merely survive hotter conditions. In this disease the leaves and inflorescence of the mango tree are badly deformed and gradually dry up. There is no fruit setting and hence no production.
Control: Various fungicides, including Captan, Benomyl and Thiram have been reported to be effective to some extent.
Mango Scabs (Denticularia mangiferae aka Sphaceloma mangiferae aka Elsinoë mangiferae) survives on young tissues (young leaves, shoots, flower, fruits) of the mango tree only. Adult tissue is not susceptible. Its spores (and their germination) requires rain splash and free water to produce new infections. Moisture conditions stimulate its growth. Though this parasite is not a fungus but in a persistent parasitic relationship with the mango tree, it produces symptoms that look somewhat familiar to those of anthracnose (a fungus) infections. It starts with small light- or dark brown or grey spots on the underside of leaves and fruit. These spots get bigger and darker with time. In the center of this lesion a cracked texture will appear. If the host tissue survives, lesions may develop into scar tissue. When infestation is severe, there is loss of leaves and fruit.
Control; Remove and destroy all fallen leaves, twigs, branches etc. Spray copper hydroxide or copper oxychloride on a very regular basis, particularly in the rainy season. Without chemical control, losses as high as 90% have been observed.
Phoma blight (Phoma glomerata) is a fungus that affects the fibre in the top layer of old leaves. It produces small, irregular, angular lesions. As the lesions grown, the colour changes from yellow-brown to cinnamon. Many small spots may form overwhelming patches and result defoliation of affected leaves. Phoma glomerate very effectively produces an enzyme that converts the remainders (glucose) of fibre (from the leaves) into it the main structural component (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) in its cell walls, thus enabling its own growth.
Control: Immediately spray Benomyl (0.2%), and 20 days later spray 0.3% Miltox (Copper Oxychloride plus Zineb). Quadris (azoxystrobin) combined with thymol at a non-fungitoxic concentration produces much higher growth inhibition of Phoma glomerata than the fungicide alone.
Powdery mildew (Oidium mangiferae) affects virtually all mango varieties. Characteristically, a white superficial powdery fungal grows on the inflorescence and tender leaves, stalk of panicles, flowers and young fruits. The affected flowers and fruits will pre-maturely drop, or fruit setting does not occur at all. The disease is initiated and developed by warm (>17°C) dry weather, but during the flowering stimulated by prolonged rains or mists and by cool nights. The disease has been reported in Brazil, India, Jamaica, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, South Africa and the U.S.A.
Control: Alternately spray wettable sulphur (0.2% ; 2 g Sulfex/L), Tridemorph (O.1% ; 1 ml Calixin/L) and Bavistin (0.1%) at 15 days interval. Start spraying when the panicle (flower cluster) starts to emerge. Or spray with Carbendazim (0.1%) or Tridemefon (0.05%) or wettable sulphur (0.3%) alone (3 days in a row).
Control-2: Similar to A. quisqualis AQ10 Biofungicide in commercial use for biocontrol of powdery mildew, Phoma glomerata (see Phoma Blight above) may act as mycoparasite of powdery mildew. Phoma glomerata can colonize and suppress development of powdery mildew. Full free text
Red rust (Cephaleuros virescens aka C. parasiticus) initially causes round and slightly elevated green-grey spots mainly on leaves. They turn into rusty red spots and may form bigger patches. This reduces the photosynthetic capacity of the leaves. In severely infected trees, twigs will remain stunted, the bark and twigs will get thick and the leaves will dry up and drop off.
Control: Spray Copper Oxychloride (0.3%) 3 times.
Sooty mould (Meliola mangiferae) may be the result of too many insects in your orchard. Scale insects, mealy bug and hoppers secrete honey dew. The honey dew sticks to the leaves, feeding fungal growth. This results in a black sooty mould over the entire surface of leaves and twigs, affecting the photosynthetic capacity of the leaves. Uncontrolled, the tree may completely turn black.
Control: Prune and burn the affected branches. Spray Wettasulf (0.2%) with+ Metacid (0.1 %) and gum acacia (0.3%). Ants feed on the honeydew excreted by soft scales, preventing accumulation of sooty moulds, but they also protect the scales from natural enemies.
Author of this article is Thijs Klompmaker, born in 1966
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